Carl Vogel


Associate Professor in Computational Linguistics

Director, Trinity Centre for Computing and Language Studies

Academic staff: School of Computer Science and Statistics

Affiliated academic staff: Center for Language and Communication Studies, School of Linguistic, Speech and Communication Sciences


BSc (Honors) Loyola -- New Orleans, USA; MSc Simon Fraser University -- BC, CA; PhD University of Edinburgh -- UK


Loyola Presidential Scholar (1984-1988); Marshall Scholar (1991-1994); Fellow, Trinity College Dublin (2002-present)

Research Areas

Computational Linguistics, Cognitive Science, etc. (more detail below and in linked publication lists)

More general information

A more complete list of papers.

Current preoccupations

The MULTISIMO project on multimodal interaction. The EC counts this project among its success stories.

Investigator within the SFI Research Centre, CNGL and its successor, ADAPT.

A new book on Internet Research Methods has been published by SAGE.

Member (founding Chair) of the (SCSS Research Ethics Committee).

Teaching in the new academic year starts on September 9, 2019.

Former preoccupations

Investigator within the FP7 project, Slandail.

Director of Research in the School of Computer Science and Statistics (2010-2012, 2012-2014, 2014-2015) for two full terms, and an extra half term beyond the two-term limit suggested by Trinity College governance guidelines, the exception made to ensure continuity among the SCSS directors, with the Director of Research position continuing for the first year of service of the then incoming Director of Undergraduate Teaching and Learning and Director of Postgraduate Teaching and Learning.

During my tenure as Director of Research for the School of Computer Science and Statistics (2010-2015), I served as Acting Head of School during the Annual Leave periods of the Head of School.

I served as Acting Director of Postgraduate Teaching and Learning in the School of Computer Science and Statistics (2008-2009).

I was Chair of the Local Organizing Committee for the 19th European Summer School in Logic, Language and Information

Collaboration inside CaraHealth, the new home of the Patient Journey Record project

Outlook analysis in health care with CaraHealth, the new home of the Patient Journey Record project on patient outlook analysis in health care, once located at the National Digital Research Centre.

Management Committee membership of WebDataNet, a COST Action (IS1004), which attends to eScience and collection and analysis of data via the web for the human sciences. Management Committee membership of TextLink -- Structuring Discourse in Multilingual Europe, a COST Action (IS1312), which addresses discourse relations.

WebDataNet has recently launched an MSc in WebDataMetrics -- see here:


Computational Linguistics Group

Trinity Centre for Computing and Language Studies, School of Computer Science and Statistics, Trinity College Dublin, The University of Dublin, Dublin 2, Ireland.





Alternative Phones

(Westland Row (13.2.1), which houses part of the Computational Linguistics Group)
(Westland Row (13.2.2), which houses another part of the Computational Linguistics Group)
(Westland Row (13.2.7), which houses another part of the Computational Linguistics Group)

(The Trinity Centre for Computing and Language Studies)


various aspects of computational linguistics for undergraduate and postgraduate degrees, research methods for masters students in computer science, and one-off lectures on research ethics for taught postgraduate students in the School of Computer Science and Statistics and in text classification studies for the MPhil in Digital Humanities.

Program Direction

After twelve years, I have stepped down as the course director for the four year undergraduate honors program the BA (Moderatorship) in Computer Science, Linguistics and a Language, effective 2012/2013.

I have also looked after TCD's provisions within the HEA Labour Market Activation program. One is called the Postgraduate Diploma in Computing with Advanced Interdisciplinary Outlook, and the other is called Computing (Conversion) with Interdisciplinary Outlook.

Supervision of Postgraduate Research Dissertations

PhD in Computational Linguistics MSc. by Research in Computational Linguistics MPhil in Linguistics and MPhil in Speech and Language Processing

Maintained links


Some Projects

Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar and Degrees of Grammaticality
Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar (HPSG) is an theoretical framework for expressing generalizations about linguistic phenomena in a way that integrates information supplied from syntax, semantics and pragmatics. To model the phenomena HPSG assumes a domain richer than trees, known as typed recursive feature structures. In order to specify linguistic theories in HPSG it is necessary to have a coherent theory of the models. This is articulated in logics corresponding to the feature structures. This research project is engaged in identifying the right notions of feature structures and corresponding logics that admit paraconsistency. Paraconsistency is a property of logics that do not reduce to triviality in the presence of contradictions. Instead, the effects of contradictions are localized. One source of contradiction in the case of linguistic models is nongrammaticality. However, grammaticality is never simply a binary notion; pretheoretically there are degrees of acceptability corresponding to sentences in the language. Theories of defaults can interface to world knowledge if it is necessary to resolve inconsistency one way or another. It follows that incorporating an appropriate notion of paraconsistent feature structures into the modeling repertoire also admits the possibility of stating theories of grammatical degree in an HPSG framework. This has not been possible before. It also becomes possible to turn the constraint solver associated with paraconsistent feature structures to a problem in robust parsing, parsing with ill-formed inputs.
Underspecified Syntax and Semantics
The human language processor is remarkably fast. Ambiguity, lexical, structural, or semantic, is a pervasive property of natural language. Keeping track of alternatives is the main complicating factor in parsing algorithms. The point of parsing is to obtain semantic representations and to be able to reason with them. However, a significant body of recent research in semantics pays attention to the fact that all ambiguities needn't be resolved for reasoning to proceed. That is, understanding a sentence in a context doesn't require a complete analysis of the sentence at hand. Therefore, there is a growing body of research in semantics focussed on underspecified representations which can be disambiguated when necessary. Apart from issues of scope, semantic ambiguity reduces to syntactic ambiguity, either in preterminal category assignment or in properly structural ambiguity. This means that semantic underspecification reduces to the problem of syntactic underspecification. This project is one in working out a well structured domain of ambiguous trees to be used in modeling ambiguity -- specifically, as a foundation for underspecified syntactic representation. This project involves identifying appropriate notions of ambiguous trees including grammar theoretic description and proof theory, as well as disambiguation. The outputs of this project are useful to techniques in robust parsing like shallow, chunk parsing. We are developing integrated syntactic and semantic fragments using the results.
Applications of Formal Language Theory
The mathematics of tree expressivity and corresponding models of computation is fairly well understood in many respects. However, there are still open problems of a theoretical and practical nature. One of the open theoretical problems is the potential density of the Chomsky hierarchy between the context free and mildly context sensitive languages. A more practical problem relates to average case complexity for recognition and parsing problems for characteristic languages of each class. It remains to determine univocally the place of various natural languages' syntax in the classification. It also remains to identify the implications of one classification or another on cognitive processing, and the degree to which theoretical facts correlate with empirical data on language use. In this regard, we are interested in sentence and discourse syntax. For instance, the syntax of narrative structure and limits of structural expressivity in narrative. Other applications are in computational biology, for instance, in modeling genetic processes that operate over DNA.
Dialog Semantics
One of the most productive characterizations of what a sentence means has been truth conditions: one knows what a sentence means when one knows the conditions under which it is true. It has nonetheless been long understood that this is not a complete characterization as, for example, it omits facts about availability or nonavailability of antecedents for pronouns in truth-conditionally identical environments. Considerable work has been done in extending the achievements of formal model theoretic semantics for sentences to discourse phenomena. It's another challenge to move from discourse to dialog, since in the case of dialog basic assumptions about interpretation functions must be questioned. It is an open question whether denotations for expressions are ever shared, much less agreed upon (and requires a methodological leap of faith that even the expressions are shared). However, even from a pessimistic perspective on the possibility of shared reference, various states of communicative success can be formally characterized. The aim here is to develop as productive an account of meaning for dialog as truth conditions are for monolog, under the assumption of a compositional syntax and semantics.
Default Inheritance Reasoning as a Model of Human Reasoning with Generics
Books are expensive; telephone books are books; telephone books are free. These sentences are all defaults, a subset of the class of generics in natural language. Defaults are sentences that are `typicaly' true, but not universally true. Arguably, non analytic sentence expressing a theoretic or pretheoretic notion is accurately translated into logic as a universally quantified first order formula. Genericity is prolific in natural language, and human reasoning with sets of generics is relatively quick (if not completely reliable). Yet, it has been difficult to find models of human reasoning with defaults that are actually computable. This project examines logics for genericity, human reasoning with sets of generics, and evaluates the degree of fit between various proposed logics and actual human behavior. Default inheritance reasoning is one class of non-monotonic logic which has some reasonable claims for providing a good description of human reasoning as the framework represents default taxonomic information, thus capturing an important aspect of genericity. Moreover, certain of these logics have the right complexity properties in comparison to human reasoning. Thus, it is interesting to examine the degree to which the proof theories for these logics share resemblances with generalizations of human behavior with generics.
Language Evolution, Language Change, and Metaphoricity
In doing formal syntax and semantics of natural language, one must distinguish between language and communication. A typical person on the street would say that there is a difference between `body language' and natural sign language, a difference between what people can do linguistically and what nonhumans can do. No one would doubt that dogs communicate, but few would call their communication a language. Without committing ourselves on this debate, we explore the initial conditions that must be in place for a human-like natural language to begin in the first place. This involves dialog modelling and potentially noisy and unreliable transfer of information among interlocutors. If language is to emerge, it must emerge quickly in order to be sustained and passed from generation to generation. But at all levels of linguistic analysis--phonetic, syntact, semantic, pragmatic--language develops over time. Sense extension created by novel metaphor and other tropes, as well as an underlying cognitive impulse towards synonymy avoidance seem to jointly provide the basis for language change.
Text Classification and Forensic Linguistics
Forensic linguistics is an application of corpus based methods to unstructured text classification. In its most forcused form, the issue is one of authorship identification, and our work in this area has been in testing the reliability and validity of objective tests for document similarity. In its most application oriented form, this may be applied to Spam filtering, as in the MSc Dissertation of Cormac O'Brien. Or in a more general setting it can be used to classify documents in a spectrum of similarity, such as in the MPhil in Linguistics dissertation of Sophie Van Gijsel.
Our group has developed the spelling checker for Irish Gaelic that is licensed by Microsoft, tools for managing experiments in cognitive science over the internet, servers for lexicographers, and a platform for experimenting with parameters that are involved in language evolution.

Some books in these areas:

Anna Esposito, Nick Campbell, Carl Vogel, Amir Hussain, Anton Nijholt (Eds.) (2010) Development of Multimodal Interfaces: Active Listening and Synchrony Springer. Lecture Notes in Computer Science Subseries: Information Systems and Applications, incl. Internet/Web, and HCI, Vol. 5967

Hewson, Clare, Pete Yule, Dianna Laurent and Carl Vogel (2002) Internet Research Methods: A Practical Guide for the Social and Behavioural Sciences London: SAGE Publications.

Jonathan Ginzburg, Zurab Khasidashvili, Carl Vogel, Jean-Jacques Lévy and Enric Vallduvi (Eds.) (1998) The Tbilisi Symposium on Logic, Language and Computation: Selected Papers Center for the Study of Language and Information - Studies in Logic, Language, and Information

Some papers in these areas (see the articles below, or click this link ( for a more complete list):

Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar and Natural Language Syntax

Murphy, Brian and Carl Vogel (2007). " The syntax of concealment: reliable methods for plain text information hiding," in Edward J. Delp III amd Ping Wah Wong, (Eds.) Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IX 28 January - February 2007. San Jose, CA.

Murphy, Brian and Carl Vogel (2007). " Statistically constrained shallow text marking: techniques, evaluation paradigm, and results," in Edward J. Delp III amd Ping Wah Wong, (Eds.) Security, Steganography, and Watermarking of Multimedia Contents IX. 28 January - February 2007. San Jose, CA.

Vogel, Carl & Villada, Begona (2000). " Spanish Psychological Predicates," in Cann, R., Grover, C., & Miller, P. (eds.) Grammatical Interfaces in Head-driven Phrase Structure Grammar Stanford: CSLI Publications. pp. 251-66.

Vogel, Carl & Villada, Begona (1999). " An HPSG Analysis of Grammatical Relations, Syntactic Valency and Semantic Argument Structure in Spanish Psychological Predicates and other Instances of Quirky Case and Agreement" Tech. rep. TCD-CS-1999-77, Computational Linguistics Lab. Department of Computer Science. Trinity College, University of Dublin.

Popowich, Fred and Carl Vogel (1991). " A Logic Based Implementation of Head-Driven Phrase Structure Grammar," in Charles Brown and Gregers Koch (eds.) Natural Language Understanding and Logic Programming, V.III Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp.227-46.

Vogel, Carl and Robin Cooper (1995). " Robust Chart Parsing with Mildly Inconsistent Feature Structures" in Andreas Schoter and Carl Vogel (eds.) Natural Language Understanding and Logic Programming. Working Papers in Cognitive Science, Volume 10. University of Edinburgh. EUCCS-WP10. pp.197-216.

Formal Language Theory.

Vogel, Carl and Tomaz Erjavec (1994). "Restricted Discontinuous Phrase Structure Grammar and its Ramifications" in Carlos Martin-Vide (ed.) Current Issues in Mathematical Linguistics. Amsterdam: Elsevier. pp.131-40.

Vogel, Carl M. and Ulrike Hahn and Holly Branigan (1996). "Cross-Serial Dependencies Are Not Hard to Process," in COLING`96 Proceedings of the 16th International Conference on Computational Linguistics. Copenhagen. pp.157-62.

Foster, Jennifer and Carl Vogel (2004). "Parsing Ill-Formed Text Using an Error Grammar," Artificial Intelligence Review. 21:269-291.

Natural Language Semantics

Carl Vogel (2014) Denoting Offence, Cognitive Computation, 6(4):628-639.

Carl Vogel (2014) Taboo Semantics, 5th IEEE International Conference on Cognitive Infocommunications, Italy, November 5-7, 2014, edited by Baranyi, Peter et alia , IEEE, pp225-230

Carl Vogel (2011) Genericity and Metaphoricity Both Involve Sense Modulation in Khurshid Ahmad (Eds)Affective Computing and Sentiment Analysis: Emotion, Metaphor and Terminology, Dordrecht, Springer, pp. 35-51.

Liliana Mamani Sanchez, Baoli Li, Carl Vogel (2010) Exploiting CCG Structures with Tree Kernels for Speculation Detection, in Richard Farkas, Veronika Vincze, Gyoergy Mora, Janos Csirik, Gyoergy Szarvas (Eds.)CoNLL 2010: Shared Task--Fourteenth Conference on Computational Natural Language Learning, Uppsala, Sweden, July 15-16, 2010, The Association for Computational Linguistics, 2010, pp126-131.

Vogel, Carl (2008). "Metaphor is Generic."Khurshid Ahmad (eds) In proceedings of LREC -- EMOT 2008, Sentiment Analysis: Emotion, Metaphor, Ontology and Terminology. Marrakech, Morocco, May 27, 2008. pp. ??-??.

Healey, Patrick G. T., Carl Vogel & Arash Eshgi (2007). "Group Dialects in an Online Community." Ron Arnstein and Laure Vieu (eds.) In proceedings of DECALOG 2007, The 10th Workshop on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue. Università di Trento (Italy), May 30 -- June 1, 2007. pp. 141-147.

Krugman, D. & Vogel, C. (2006). "Non-Local Contexts Help Resolve Ambiguity". In ICAI'06 - The 2006 International Conference on Artificial Intelligence.

Vogel, Carl and Michelle McGillion (2002). "Genericity is Conceptual, Not Semantic" TCD-CS-2002-27 for the Seventh Symposium on Logic and Language August 26-29, 2002. Pecs, Hungary.

Vogel, Carl (2001). "Dynamic Semantics for Metaphor" Metaphor and Symbol, 16 (1 & 2), 59-74.

Eberle, Kurt and Carl Vogel (1997). "Constructing Compact Representations of Ambiguous Language" in R. Mitkov & N. Nicolov (eds.) Proceedings of Recent Advances in Natural Language Processing, 1997. Tzigov Chark, Bulgaria. September 11-13, 1997.

Healey, Pat and Carl Vogel (1997). "Dressing Dialog for Success," in Anton Benz and Gerhard Jaeger (eds.) Proceedings of the Munich Workshop on Formal Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialog. Munich, Germany. March 10-12. pp.82-99.

Vogel, Carl and Cecile Bouchet (1998). "Semantic Ambiguity, Vagueness, and Constitutional Ramifications for the Family Law Act of 1996," Technical Report (TCD-CS-1998-04).Computational Linguistics Lab. Department of Computer Science. Trinity College, University of Dublin.

Models of Human Reasoning

Hewson, Claire and Carl Vogel (1994). "Psychological Evidence for Assumptions of Path-Based Inheritance Reasoning," Proceedings of the Sixteenth Annual Conference of the Cognitive Science Society. Atlanta, Ga. pp.409-14.

Vogel, Carl (1996). "Human Reasoning with Negative Defaults," in Dov Gabbay and Hans Juergen Ohlbach (eds.) Practical Reasoning Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence 1085. pp.606-21. Berlin: Springer.

Vogel, Carl and Judith Tonhauser (1996). "Psychological Constraints on Plausible Default Inheritance Reasoning" in Aiello and Shapiro (eds.) Proceedings of the 5th International Conference on Principles and Practice of Knowledge Representation, KR`96. Cambridge, Mass.: Morgan Kaufmann. pp.608-19.

Vogel, Carl and Fred Popowich (1997). "A Parametric Definition for a Family of Inheritance Reasoners" New Generation Computing 15:247-92

Language Evolution, Language Change, and Metaphoricity

Martin Bachwerk and Carl Vogel (2012) "Language and friendships: A co-evolution model of social and linguistic conventions" Thomas C. Scott-Phillips, Monica Tamariz, Erica A Cartmill and James R. Hurford (eds) The 9th International Conference on the Evolution of Language (EvoLang9) Kyoto, Japan, March 13-16, 2012. pp34-41.

Martin Bachwerk and Carl Vogel (2011) "Modelling Social Structures and Hierarchies in Language Evolution" Max Bramer, Miltos Petridis and Adrian Hopgood (eds) Research and Development in Intelligent Systems XXVII 2010, Part 2, 49-62, DOI: 10.1007/978-0-85729-130-1_4

Martin Bachwerk and Carl Vogel (2010) "Establishing Linguistic Conventions in Task-Oriented Primeval Dialogue" Anna Esposito, Alessandro Vinciarelli, Klara Vicsi, Catherine Pelauchaud and Anton Nijholt (eds) Analysis of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication and Enactment: The Processing Issues Lecture Notes in Computer Science, 2011, Volume 6800/2011, 48-55, DOI: 10.1007/978-3-642-25775-9_4

Vogel, Carl (2010). "Group Cohesion, Cooperation and Synchrony in a Social Model of Language Evolution" Anna Esposito et al. (eds) Development of Multimodal Interfaces: Active Listening and Synchrony. Dublin Ireland, Mar 23-27, 2010. pp. 16-32. Sringer LNCS 5967.

Vogel, Carl (2008). "Metaphor is Generic."Khurshid Ahmad (eds) In proceedings of LREC -- EMOT 2008, Sentiment Analysis: Emotion, Metaphor, Ontology and Terminology. Marrakech, Morocco, May 27, 2008. pp. ??-??.

Vogel, Carl and Justin Woods (2006) "A Platform for Simulating Language Evolution," In Bramer, M., Coenen, F., & Tuson, A. (Eds.), Research and Development in Intelligent Systems XXIII. pp. 360-373.

Woods, Justin and Carl Vogel, (2002) "Fallible Communicators Evolve Successful Communication," TCD-CS-2002-31.

Carl Vogel (2001) "Dynamic Semantics for Metaphor," Metaphor and Symbol. 16(1&2) pp. 59-74.

Appel, Christine and Carl Vogel, (2001) Investigating Syntax Priming in a E-Mail Tandem Language Learn ing Environment." In Keith Cameron (ed.) Challenge of Change: Research and Practice Exeter: Elm Bank Publications. pp. 177--84.

Text Classification, Computational Stylometry, Sentiment Analysis, Law and Linguistics, and Forensic Linguistics

Carl Vogel (2013) Attribution of Mutual Understanding. Journal of Law and Policy, 21(2)377-420.

Erwan Moreau and Carl Vogel (2012) Quality Estimation: an experimental study using unsupervised similarity measures. In Chris Callison-Burch, Philipp Koehn, Christof Monz, Matt Post, Radu Soricut, and Lucia Specia (eds) Proceedings of the 7th Workshop on Statistical Machine Translation, Montreal, June 7-8, 2012, ACL, pp. 120 - 126.

Ger Lynch, Erwan Moreau and Carl Vogel (2012) A Naive Bayes classifier for automatic correction of preposition and determiner errors in ESL text,. In Joel Tetreault, Jill Burstein and Claudia Leacock (eds) Proceedings of the Seventh Workshop on Building Educational Applications Using NLP, Montreal, June 7-8, 2012, ACL, pp. 257 - 262.

Carl Vogel and Lydia Behan (2012) Measuring Synchrony in Dialog Transcripts. In Anna Esposito, Antonietta M. Esposito, Alessandro Vinciarelli, Rüdiger Hoffmann, Vincent C. Müller (eds) Cognitive Behavioural Systems, Springer pp. 73 - 88.

Baoli Li and Carl Vogel (2010) Improving Multiclass Text Classification with Error-Correcting Output Coding and Sub-class Partitions. In Atefeh Farzindar and Vlado Kešelj (eds). Lecture Notes in Computer Science - Advances in Artificial Intelligence, Berlin: Springer 2010, pp. 4 - 15.

Baoli Li and Carl Vogel (2010) Leveraging Sub-class Partition Information in Binary Classification and Its Application. In Max Bramer, Richard Ellis and Miltos Petridis (eds). Research and Development in Intelligent Systems XXVI, London: Springer 2010, pp. 299 - 304.

Vogel, Carl (2009). Law Matters, Syntax Matters and Semantics Matters. In Guenther Grewendorf and Monika Rathert (eds). Formal Linguistics and Law,Berlin, Mouton de Gruyter, 2009, pp. 25 - 54,

Vogel, Carl and Jerom Janssen (2009). "Emoticonsciousness" Anna Esposito, Amir Hussain, Maria Marinaro and Raffaele Martone (eds) Multimodal Signals: Cognitive and Algorithmic Issues. Berlin: Springer. 271-87.

Janssen, Jerom and Carl Vogel (2008). "Politics Makes the Swedish :-) and the Italians :-(."Khurshid Ahmad (eds) In proceedings of LREC -- EMOT 2008, Sentiment Analysis: Emotion, Metaphor, Ontology and Terminology. Marrakech, Morocco, May 27, 2008. pp. ??-??.

Frontini, Francesca, Gerard Lynch and Carl Vogel (2008). "Revisiting the Donation of Constantine." (eds) In proceedings of AISB2008, Style in Text: Creative Generation and Identification of Authorship. Aberdeen Scotland, April 2, 2008. pp. 1-9.

Vogel, Carl and Gerard Lynch (2008). "Computational Stylometry: Who's in a Play?"A. Esposito and N. Bourbakis and N. Avouris and I. Hatzilygeroudis (eds) Verbal and Nonverbal Features of Human-Human and Human-Machine Interaction. Berlin: Springer. 169-186

Gerrard Lynch and Carl Vogel (2007) "Automatic Character Assignation," Research and Development in Intelligent Systems XXIV. Max Bramer, Frans Coenen and Miltos Petridis (eds). Proceedings of AI-2007 Twenty-seventh SGAI International Conference on Innovative Techniques and Applications of Artificial Intelligence. 335-348

Carl Vogel and Sandrine Brisset (2007) "Hearing Voices in the Poetry of Brendan Kennelly," Belgian Journal of English Language & Literature 1-16

Pat Healey, Carl Vogel and Arash Eshghi (2007). "Group Dialects in an Online Community". DECALOG'07 - The 10th Workshop on the Semantics and Pragmatics of Dialogue 141-147

Carl Vogel (2007) "N-gram Distributions in Texts as Proxy for Textual Finger Prints" Fundamentals of Verbal and Nonverbal Communication and the Biometric Issue, A. Esposito, M. Bratanic, E. Keller and M. Marinaro (eds.) ISBN: 978-1-58603-733-8 189-194.

O'Brien, Cormac and Carl Vogel (2003) "Spam Filters: Bayes vs. Chi-Squared; Letters vs. Words" International Symposium on Information and Communication Technologies. Markus Aleksy, et al. (eds). pp. pp. 298-303.

Van Gijsel, Sofie and Carl Vogel. (2003) "Inducing a Cline from Corpora of Political Manifestos" International Symposium on Information and Communication Technologies. Markus Aleksy, et al. (eds). pp. 304-310.

Kopka, Judith and Carl Vogel (2004) "Testing the Reliability of an Authorship Identification Method," TCD-CS-2004-40, 16 September 2004.

Devitt, Ann and Carl Vogel, (2004). "The Topology of WordNet: Some Metrics." Second International Wordnet Conference. Brno, Czech Republic. pp. 106-111.

Devitt, Ann and Carl Vogel (2003) "Using Wordnet hierarchies to pinpoint differences in related texts," TCD-CS-2003-27, 16 September 2004.

Internet Research Methodology.

Stephanie Steinmetz, Ana Slavec, Kea Tijdens, Ulf-Dietrich Reips, Pablo de Pedraza, Alina Popescu, Ana Belchior, Andreas Birgegard, Annamaria Bianchi, Ariel Ayalon, Arto Selkala, Alberto Villacampa, Bernardo (Dov) Winer, Boris Mlacic, Carl Vogel, Dag Gravem, Daniel Gayo Avello, Daniela Constantin, Daniele Toninelli, David Troitino, Dora Horvath, Edith De Leeuw, Ela Oren, Enrique Fernandez-Macias, Fanney Thorsdottir, Félix Ortega, Frederik Funke, Gian Marco Campagnolo, Goran Milas, Grünwald, Clemens, Gudbjorg Jonsdottir, Gustav Haraldsen, Guy Doron, Helen Margetts, Igor Miklousic, Ioannis Andreadis, Jernej Berzelak, Julijana Angelovska, Karin Schrittwieser, Kathrin Kissau, Katja Lozar Manfreda, Kirstine Kolsrud, Knut Kalgraff Skjak, Konstantinos Tsagarakis, Lars Kaczmirek, Laurent Lesnard, Liliana Mihaela Moga, Luis Lopes Teixeira, Marc Plate, Marcin Kozak, Marek Fuchs, Mario Callegaro, Marta Cantijoch, Martin Kahanec, Mateusz Stopa, Michele Ernst Staehli, Mihaela Neculita, Mirjana Ivanovic, Muriel Foulonneau, Naoufel Cheikhrouhou, Nicoletta Fornara, Niels Ole Finnemann, Nino Zajc, Nora Nyirå, Panayiotis Louca, Paulien Osse, Petroula Mavrikiou, Rachel Gibson, Ravi Vatrapu, Reuven Dar, Robert Pinter, Rocio Martinez Torres, Salima Douhou, Silvia Biffignandi, Solza Grceva, Sophie David, Suvi Ronkainen, Tamas Csordas, Timo Lenzner, Vaka Vesteinsdottir, Vasja Vehovar, Yavor Markov (2014) WebDataNet: Innovation and quality in web-based data collection. International Journal of Internet Science. 9(1)64-71.

Stephanie Steinmetz, Lars Kaczmirek, Pablo de Pedraza, Ulf-Dietrich Reips, Kea Tijdens, Katja Lozar Manfreda, Lilly Rowland, Francis Serrano, Marko Vidakovic, Carl Vogel, Ana Belchior, Jernej Berzelak, Silvia Biffignandi, Andreas Birgegard, Ernest Cachia, Mario Callegaro, Patrick J Camilleri, Gian Marco Campagnolo, Marta Cantijoch, Naoufel Cheikhrouhou, Daniela Constantin, Reuven Dar, Sophie David, Edith de Leeuw, Guy Doron, Enrique Fernandez-Macias, Niels Ole Finnemann, Muriel Foulonneau, Nicoletta Fornara, Marek Fuchs, Frederik Funke, Rachel Gibson, Solza Grceva, Gustav Haraldsen, Gudbjorg Jonsdottir, Martin Kahanec, Kathrin Kissau, Kirstine Kolsrud, Timo Lenzner, Laurent Lesnard, Helen Margetts, Yavor Markov, Goran Milas, Boris Mlacic, Liliana Mihaela Moga, Mihaela Neculita, Alina Irina Popescu, Suvi Ronkainen, Annette Scherpenzeel, Arto Selkala, Knut Kalgraff Skjak, Ana Slavec, Michele Ernst Staehli, Fanney Thorsdottir, Daniele Toninelli, Ravi Vatrapu, Vasja Vehovar, Alberto Villacampa Gonzalez and Bernardo (Dov) Winer (2012) WebDataNet: A network on web-based data collection, methodological challenges, solutions and implementation. International Journal of Internet Science. 7(1)79-89.

Hewson, Clare, Pete Yule, Dianna Laurent and Carl Vogel (2003) Internet Research Methods: A Practical Guide for the Social and Behavioural Sciences London: SAGE Publications.

Hewson, Claire, Dianna Laurent and Carl M. Vogel (1996) Proper methodologies for psychological and sociological studies conducted via the Internet Behavior Research Methods, Instruments, & Computers 28 (2):186-191.


Carl Vogel, Dave Lewis, Ger Lynch, Julia Medori, Liliana Mamani Sanchez, Niamh McCombe, Phil Ritchie "DATA PROCESSING SYSTEM AND METHOD FOR ASSESSING QUALITY OF A TRANSLATION" US201213495360 20120613 / EP20110169673 20110613 / EP2535822 (A2)

Aherne, Aoife and Carl Vogel, (2006) "Wordnet Enhanced Automatic Crossword Generation" In Petr Sojka, Key-Sun Choi, Christiane Fellbaum and Piek Vossen (eds). Proceedings of the Third International Wordnet Conference, Seogwipo, Korea, January 22-26, 2006, pp 139 - 145.

Graham, Yvette and Carl Vogel, (in preparation) "Computer Construction of Crossword Puzzles using Horn Clauses and Constraint Programming"

Buckley, Maria and Carl Vogel (2003) "Improving Internet Research Methods: A Web Laboratory" In Pedro Isaias and Nitya Karmakar (eds.)Proceedings of the IADIS International Conference WWW/Internet 2003 Vol 1. pp. 467--76.

Some Links

1CSLL2: October 11, 2006
Computational Linguistics Library
Emacs Manual
SICStus Prolog Manual

Back to: [Computer Science] [Trinity College Dublin]
Last Modified: May 20 07:42:49 2018 (vogel)
URL (School of Computer Science and Statistics):
URL (School of Linguistic, Speech and Communication Sciences):
URL (Trinity College Dublin):
URL (Trinity Access to Research Archive):