ROCKET PROPELLANTS Page 2




PROPERTIES OF LIQUID ROCKET PROPELLANTS
 
CompoundChemical
Formula
Molecular
Weight
DensityMelting
Point
Boiling
Point
Liquid OxygenO232.001.141 g/ml -218.8oC-183.0oC
Nitrogen TetroxideN2O492.01 1.45 g/ml-9.3oC21.15oC
Nitric AcidHNO363.011.55 g/ml -41.6oC83oC
Liquid HydrogenH22.0160.071 g/ml -259.3oC-252.9oC
HydrazineN2H432.05 1.004 g/ml1.4oC113.5oC
Methyl HydrazineCH3NHNH246.07 0.866 g/ml-52.4oC87.5oC
Dimethyl Hydrazine(CH3)2NNH2 60.100.791 g/ml-58oC63.9oC
Dodecane (Kerosene)C12H26170.34 0.749 g/ml-9.6oC216.3oC

NOTES:
(1) Chemically, kerosene is a mixture of hydrocarbons; the chemical composition depends on its source, but it usually consists of about ten different hydrocarbons, each containing from 10 to 16 carbon atoms per molecule; the constituents include n-dodecane, alkyl benzenes, and naphthalene and its derivatives.
(2) Nitrogen tetroxide and nitric acid are hypergolic with hydrazine, MMH and UDMH. Oxygen is not hypergolic with any commonly used fuel.



COMPOSITION OF SOLID ROCKET PROPELLANTS
 
PropellantTypeComposition
Balistite (USA)Double Base HomogeneousNitrocellulose (51.5%), Nitroglycerine (43.0%), Plasticiser (1.0%), Other (4.5%)
Cordite (Soviet)Double Base HomogeneousNitrocellulose (56.5%), Nitroglycerine (28.0%), Plasticiser (4.5%), Other (11.0%)
SRB PropellantCompositeAluminum Powder (16%) as fuel, Ammonium Perchlorate (69.93%) as oxidizer, Iron Oxidizer Powder (0.07%) as catalyst, Polybutadiene Acrylic Acid Acrylonitrile (12.04%) as rubber-based binder, Epoxy Curing Agent (1.96%)

NOTE:
The density of solid rocket propellants range from 1.5 to 1.85 g/ml (95-115 lb/cf). SRB propellant has a density of 1.715 g/ml (107 lb/cf).



SELECTED ROCKETS AND THEIR PROPELLANTS
 
RocketStageEnginesPropellant Specific Impulse
Atlas/Centaur0
1
2
Rdyne YLR89-NA7 (x2)
Rdyne YLR105-NA7
P&W RL-10A-3-3 (x2)
LO2/RP-1
LO2/RP-1
LO2/LH2
259sl / 292vac
220sl / 309vac
444s vacuum
Titan II1
2
Aerojet LR-87-AJ-5 (x2)
Aerojet LR-91-AJ-5
N2O4/Aerozine 50
N2O4/Aerozine 50
259s sea level
312s vacuum
Saturn V1
2
3
Rdyne F-1 (x5)
Rdyne J-2 (x5)
Rdyne J-2
LO2/RP-1
LO2/LH2
LO2/LH2
260s sea level
424s vacuum
424s vacuum
Space Shuttle0
1
OMS
RCS
Thio SRB (x2)
Rdyne SSME (x3)
Aero OMS (x2)
----------
Solid
LO2/LH2
N2O4/MMH
N2O4/MMH
242sl / 269vac
455s vacuum
313s vacuum
260-280s vac


BACK INDEX NEXT

Compiled and edited by Robert A. Braeunig, 1996.
Acknowledgements